Bariatric surgical procedures cause weight loss by restricting the amount of food the stomach can hold, causing malabsorption of nutrients, or by a combination of both gastric restriction and malabsorption.
Bariatric procedures also often cause hormonal changes. Most weight loss surgeries today are performed using minimally invasive techniques (laparoscopic surgery).
The most common bariatric surgery procedures are gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, adjustable gastric band, and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. Each surgery has its own advantages and disadvantages.
The Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy – often called the sleeve – is performed by removing approximately 80 percent of the stomach. The remaining stomach is a tubular pouch that resembles a banana.
This procedure works by several mechanisms. First, the new stomach pouch holds a considerably smaller volume than the normal stomach and helps to significantly reduce the amount of food (and thus calories) that can be consumed. The greater impact, however, seems to be the effect the surgery has on gut hormones that impact a number of factors including hunger, satiety, and blood sugar control.
Short term studies show that the sleeve is as effective as the roux-en-Y gastric bypass in terms of weight loss and improvement or remission of diabetes. There is also evidence that suggest the sleeve, similar to the gastric bypass, is effective in improving type 2 diabetes independent of the weight loss. The complication rates of the sleeve fall between those of the adjustable gastric band and the roux-en-y gastric bypass.
Adjustable Gastric Band
The Adjustable Gastric Band – often called the band – involves an inflatable band that is placed around the upper portion of the stomach, creating a small stomach pouch above the band, and the rest of the stomach below the band.
The common explanation of how this device works is that with the smaller stomach pouch, eating just a small amount of food will satisfy hunger and promote the feeling of fullness.
The feeling of fullness depends upon the size of the opening between the pouch and the remainder of the stomach created by the gastric band. The size of the stomach opening can be adjusted by filling the band with sterile saline, which is injected through a port placed under the skin.
Reducing the size of the opening is done gradually over time with repeated adjustments or “fills.”
The notion that the band is a restrictive procedure (works by restricting how much food can be consumed per meal and by restricting the emptying of the food through the band) has been challenged by studies that show the food passes rather quickly through the band, and that absence of hunger or feeling of being satisfied was not related to food remaining in the pouch above the band.
What is known is that there is no malabsorption; the food is digested and absorbed as it would be normally.
The clinical impact of the band seems to be that it reduces hunger, which helps the patients to decrease the amount of calories that are consumed.
Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch
The Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch – abbreviated as BPD/DS – is a procedure with two components. First, a smaller, tubular stomach pouch is created by removing a portion of the stomach, very similar to the sleeve gastrectomy. Next, a large portion of the small intestine is bypassed.
The duodenum, or the first portion of the small intestine, is divided just past the outlet of the stomach. A segment of the distal (last portion) small intestine is then brought up and connected to the outlet of the newly created stomach, so that when the patient eats, the food goes through a newly created tubular stomach pouch and empties directly into the last segment of the small intestine. Roughly three-fourths of the small intestine is bypassed by the food stream.
The bypassed small intestine, which carries the bile and pancreatic enzymes that are necessary for the breakdown and absorption of protein and fat, is reconnected to the last portion of the small intestine so that they can eventually mix with the food stream. Similar to the other surgeries described above, the BPD/DS initially helps to reduce the amount of food that is consumed; however, over time this effect lessens and patients are able to eventually consume near “normal” amounts of food. Unlike the other procedures, there is a significant amount of small bowel that is bypassed by the food stream.
Additionally, the food does not mix with the bile and pancreatic enzymes until very far down the small intestine. This results in a significant decrease in the absorption of calories and nutrients (particularly protein and fat) as well as nutrients and vitamins dependent on fat for absorption (fat soluble vitamins and nutrients). Lastly, the BPD/DS, similar to the gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy, affects guts hormones in a manner that impacts hunger and satiety as well as blood sugar control. The BPD/DS is considered to be the most effective surgery for the treatment of diabetes among those that are described here.
Dr. Toygar Toydemir
A bariatric specialist with international experience.
Toygar TOYDEMİR, MD was born in 1976. He graduated from Gaziantep Science High School in 1994 and started his medical education at Ege University, Faculty of Medicine in the same year. After completing his six-year medical education, he was assigned to Sisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital where he was going to receive his General Surgery Specialization between 2001 and 2006. After completing his compulsory service in Erzurum Palandoken State Hospital, he completed his military service in Adana Military Hospital where he also undertook the duty of clinical chief between 2008 and 2009. Toygar Toydemir, MD is married and father of two children. He is at advanced level in English and at intermediate level in Italian.
Toydemir, MD, who has been interested in laparoscopic surgery since the first years of his assistantship, has worked with many eminent names at home and abroad, and received an advanced laparoscopic surgery training. Between 2009-2011, he worked with Prof. Mehmet Ali Yerdel, MD, and assessed hundreds of patients suffering from reflux and performed hundreds of reflux surgeries.
In 2010, he accomplished the written and oral stages of the competency (Board) test held by the Turkish Surgical Association and became entitled to receive the certificate of competency. Between 2011 and 2013, he worked with Prof. Koray Tekin, MD, one of the pioneers of laparoscopic bariatric surgery in our country, on bariatric surgery and they performed more than 800 bariatric surgeries together.
In 2013, he worked with Mitchell Roslin, MD, a global expert in bariatric surgery, on revisional bariatric surgery at New York Lenox Hill Hospital and had the opportunity to closely follow innovations in the field of bariatric surgery in the United States. He accomplished the file review and oral examination stages of the associate professorship exam organized by the council of higher education and received the title of General Surgery Associate. Toydemir, MD, who gained too much experience in the reflux and bariatric surgery in recent years, continues his works in this regard.